Virginia Chapter of the

National Organization for Women

Virginia Foremothers

Virginia Foremothers Oral History Project

Oral History of the ERA & Women's Movement in Virginia


Virginia Foremothers YouTube Channel

New Videos Up on YouTube Irregularly


Collected so far is a 4-hour interview with members of the Congressional Union and several other activists:

Simone Paradise - Edit
● Marianne Fowler
● Pat Harley
● Mary Ann Beall
● Mary Peterson Hartzler
● Lee Perkins
● Ray Bridge (Mary Ann Beall's husband)
● Georgia Fuller
● Emily McCoy
(recorded just after the memorial for Jean Crawford in March 2014)


 ERA Foremothers Archived Interviews

  • 3 hour interview with Bobbie Frances (who runs EqualRightsAmendment.org and has been the Chair of the ERA Taskforce for NCWO)
  • 3 hour interview with Barbara Irvine at the Alice Paul Institute (where Irvine is a founding board member), Barbara is also the founder of the Roanoke Valley NOW chapter and is a long time activist
  • 2 hour interview with Bonnie Becker who was at the heart of implementing Title IX in Virginia
  • 2 hour interview with Sandy Oestreich who is the founder of the National ERA Alliance
  • 2 hour interview with Carol A. Kalinoski who worked with EEOC during the second wave. She and her husband both did a lot of work with getting early employment issues worked out for women. She now runs her own law firm in Alexandria, Virginia; ⚖️ Carol A. Kalinoski & Associates in which she is a consultant and attorney concerning strategic trade controls, trade and economic sanctions.
  • Georgia Fuller regales the Arlington NOW chapter with stories of the second wave of the women's movement in Virginia, and the incredible key players who kept each other going as they beat back the patriarchy. Georgia also shares mementos of their non-violent, arrestable actions, AKA civil disobedience.
  • One-hour audio interview with Sonia Pressman Fuentes.



Simone Roberts - Edit

VA NOW Historian (2013-2015), Simone Roberts documented and recorded an oral history project and microhistory on VaNOW in 2014. The focus is the personal recollections of the women and men involved in the Second Wave movement for the Equal Rights Amendment. Dr. Roberts travelled throughout Virginia and a few other Eastern states to interview these intrepid activists and video record their stories of various legislative battles, social education, activist friendships, and direct actions like the March to Richmond and the fasting in Chicago. From these interviews, we will create an archive of podcasts to serve as both documentation of our feminist past and inspiration for our feminist future.  Paradise assists with the video conversions, fixing format issues, and making sure all the clips are "viewable." 

Simone has been gifted with lots of photographs and memorabilia from the participants, and with lots of digital documents ranging from copies of The ERA Times to a few letters and other papers Jean Crawford's family chose to share with the archive. There is a lot of work to be done, new skills to be learned, about 30 more people to interview (if they all agree!), and only two people doing it on a volunteer basis. Hang in there! We're bringing this huge project along as fast as we can!

VA NOW Communications VP, Paradise Kendra took over the oral history project in 2015 and she continues to archive and interview the women and men of this movement.

To support the ERA Oral History Project (camera equipment, SD cards, gas money, computers and disc space for backups of this precious footage, oh and this website to host and make sure you all can see everything!) consider donating to Virginia NOW. Please include a note that your donation is to support the Oral History Project and we will include your name in the list of supporters to accompany the archive. If you donate by check, please include a note that the donation is specifically for the Oral History Project.


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Mary Peterson Hartzler and Paradise Kendra
© Photographed by Paradise Kendra

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(left to right)
Marianne Fowler, Pat Harley, Mary Ann Beall, Mary Peterson Hartzler, Lee Perkins, Georgia Fuller, Ray Bridge, & Emily McCoy
© Photographed by Paradise Kendra

All footage © Virginia NOW

These oral histories are part of VaNOW's educational outreach and historical preservation, and maybe reused for research and other purposes with PERMISSIONVirginia Foremothers Project Historians are Angela Guzman and Paradise Hunter Hawks.